Quettali Demonstratives

Demonstratives are special words that provide a handy shorthand for referring to things by proximity.

Quenya uses a three-way distinction in some cases: near the speaker, away from the speaker, and somewhat further away. This is similar to Spanish (este, ese, aquello), Japanese (kono, sono, ano), and many other languages. For other cases, Quenya uses a two-way distinction (near speaker and away), like English does.

Besides demonstratives, which indicate a specific reference, we also have interrogatives (question words), which ask a question (What? Where?), and relative pronouns, which refer to something mentioned earlier in the sentence (“...the house where he lived...’). In English, interrogatives and relative pronouns use the same words; in Quenya, they are different.

The difference between tana  and sana  is that the former refers to “that over there”, while the latter refers to “that previously mentioned”; they both translate to the same word in English. The same difference applies for tanome vs. sanome.

Nearby Not Close Distant Question/Relative
Person: man  ye  who
Thing: si 
sina 
this ta 
tana 
sana 
that enta yon mana  i  which;
Place: sís 
sissë 
sinomë 
here tás 
tassë 
tanomë 
sanomë 
there yonder massë  yassë 
yas 
From: silo 
sio 
hence talo 
thence yallo  whence
Toward: sir 
sira 
simen 
hither tar 
tara 
tamen 
tanna 
thither yanen  whither
Time: 
silumë 
at this time
talumë 
at that time
en then soon;
Manner: sillë 
sië 
sin 
like this tallë 
san 
like that;
yallë in which manner;
Kind: sítë of this sort taitë of that sort;
Means: sinen by this means tanen by that means manen  yanen  by which means

—generated by quettali version 0.25.14